National Health Advisor Study (48 pgs 1998 Lee Rosenthal et al) http://crh.arizona.edu/sites/crh.arizona.edu/files/pdf/publications/CAHsummaryALL.pdf
- Eng,E. and Young,R. Lay health Advisors as Community Change Agents. Community Health.15(1): 24-40.1992.
- Showstack, J., et al. Health of the Public: Private Sector Challenge. Journal of the American Medical Association. 276(13): 1071-1074 1996
- Tyndal, J., Development Chairperson of the National Peer Helpers Association. Personal Communication. March, 1997.
- Witmer, A., Seifer, D., Finocchio, J., Leslie, J., O’Neil, E.H., Community Health Workers; Integral Members of the Health Care Workforce. American Journal of Public Health. 85(8): 1055-1058 (37 References)
- World Health Organization, Community Health Workers: Working Document for the WHO Study Group, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO 1987 ( 7 pages of references )
- 2009 APHA Policy Statement on CHWs “Support for Community Health Workers to Increase Health Access and to Reduce Health Inequities” Policy Date: 11/10/2009
Policy Number: 20091 (36 References)
- 2014 Policy proposal D6: “Support for Community Health Worker Leadership in Determining Workforce Standards”
Center for Disease Control: Addressing Chronic Disease through Community Health Workers: A POLICY AND SYSTEMS-LEVEL APPROACH (Issue Brief 20 pages; 61 references)
This course is designed to provide state programs and other stakeholders with basic knowledge about Community Health Workers (CHWs), such as official definitions of CHWs, workforce development, and other topic areas. In addition, the course covers how states can become engaged in policy and systems change efforts to establish sustainability for the work of CHWs, including examples of states that have proven success in this arena.
The six-session course covers
- CHWs’ roles and functions
- Current status of the CHW occupation
- Areas of public policy affecting CHWs
- Credentialing CHWs
- Sustainable funding for CHW positions
- Examples of states successful in moving policy and systems change forward
The course sessions are self-paced. Completion time for each session is between 30–45 minutes. The user does not have to take each session in succession.
- Catherine Dower JD
- Melissa Knox, RD
- Vanessa Linder, MA
- Edward O’Neil, MPA, PhD, FAAN
- The Center for the Health Professions, University of California San Francisco
- National Fund for Medical Education
- Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota
National Community Health Worker Study 2007 (268 pgs HRSA) http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/chwstudy2007.pdf (55 pages of References)
Paving a Pathway to Advance the Community Health Worker Workforce (28 pgs; October 2011; Matos, S, et al)
Community Health Workers Toolkit (Rural Assistance Center RAC; 61 pages First published 9/2011 Last reviewed 4/2014) http://www.raconline.org/communityhealth/chw/files/community-health-workers-toolkit.pdf
The toolkit is made up of several modules. Each concentrates on different aspects of CHW programs. Modules also include resources for you to use in developing a program for your area.
- Module 1: Introduction to Community Health Workers -An overview of community health workers and their roles.
- Module 2: Program Models -Elements of differing models for CHW programs.
- Module 3: Training Approaches-Available training materials and procedures for CHWs.
- Module 4: Program Implementation-Building a program from the bottom up.
- Module 5: Planning for Sustainability-How to ensure your CHW program functions properly.
- Module 6: Measuring Program Impacts-Methods that allow you to measure the effectiveness of your program.
- Module 7: Disseminating Best Practices Letting other people know what you have done with your program.
- Module 8: Program Clearinghouse Examples of and contacts for successful CHW programs.
This toolkit is also available as a printable PDF.
A community-based nonprofit, a patient-centered medical home (PCMH), and academic partners collaborated to develop and implement a program (PREP) to educate and support Vietnamese American patients with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension. This article describes the successes and challenges associated with PREP delivery including patient recruitment, structuring/documenting visits, and establishing effective care team integration, work flow, and communication. Strategies for mitigating these issues are presented, as well as recommendations for other PCMHs seeking to integrate CHWs into care teams. [Abstract]
This study attempted to evaluate clinical outcomes and long-term cost-effectiveness of an intervention involving CHWs in assisting Mexican-American diabetes type-2 patients with controlling their condition. Incremental lifetime health outcomes and related expenditures were calculated using the CDC Diabetes Cost-Effectiveness Model (DCEM). The intervention group showed a significant improvement in glycemic control and cholesterol management after two years of intervention. The intervention is expected to reduce long-term complications, resulting in an increase in residual life-years and quality-adjusted life-years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio has been estimated to be $13,810, which is below the level of comparable studies. [Abstract]
A total of 211 adult Latinos with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a standard of healthcare (n = 106) or CHW (n = 105) group. The CHW intervention comprised 17 individual sessions delivered at home by CHWs over a 12-month period. CHWs had an overall significant effect on fasting glucose concentration that was more pronounced at the 12- and 18-month visits. There was no significant effect on blood lipid levels, hypertension, and weight. [Abstract]
A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India’s rural public health system. This article discusses CHWs’ experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. The comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology which the health workers espouse is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance.
This ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalized privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration. [Abstract]
Global Evidence for Peer Support: Humanizing Health Care (44pgs Report from an International Conference Hosted by Peers for Progress and the National Council of La Raza June 2014 http://peersforprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/140911-global-evidence-for-peer-support-humanizing-health-care.pdf
- “We all do better with peer support”
- “Peer Support works and people like it”
Ohio CHW Professional Development Survey References (2004-2014)
Becker, J., Kovach, A., & Gronseth, D. (2004). Individual empowerment: How community health workers operationalize self-determination, self-sufficiency, and decision-making abilities of low-income mothers. Journal Of Community Psychology, 32(3), 327-342.
Ingram, M., Reinschmidt, K., Schachter, K., Davidson, C., Sabo, S., Zapien, J., & Carvajal, S. (2012). Establishing a professional profile of community health workers: Results from a national study of roles, activities and training. Journal Of Community Health, 37(2), 529-537. doi:10.1007/s10900-011-9475-2
Ingram, M., Sabo, S., Rothers, J., Wennerstrom, A., & de Zapien, J. (2014). Community health workers and community advocacy: addressing health disparities. Journal Of Community Health, (Preprints), 1-8.
Rosenthal, E., Wiggins, N., Ingram, M., Mayfield-Johnson, S., & De Zapien, G. (2011). Community health workers then and now. Journal Of Ambulatory Care Management, 34(3), 247-259.
Ruiz, Y., Matos, S., Kapadia, S., Islam, N., Cusack, A., Kwong, S., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2012). Lessons learned from a community–academic initiative: The development of a core competency–based training for community–academic initiative community health workers.American Journal Of Public Health, 102(12), 2372-2379. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300429
Sabo, S., Ingram, M., Reinschmidt, K. M., Schachter, K., Jacobs, L., Guernsey de Zapien, J., & … Carvajal, S. (2013). Predictors and a framework for fostering community advocacy as a community health worker core function to eliminate health disparities. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(7), e67-73. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301108
Sosa, E.T., Biediger-Friedman, L., & Yin, Z. (2013). Lessons learned for training of promotores de salud for obesity and diabetes prevention. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 6(1), 1-13.
Uriarte, J. A., Cummings, A. L., & Lloyd, L. E. (2014). An instructional design model for culturally competent community health worker training. Health Promotion Practice, 15(1), 56S-63s. doi:10.1177/1524839913517711
Wennerstrom, A., Johnson, L., Gibson, K., Batta, S., & Springgate, B. (2014). Community health workers leading the charge on workforce development: Lessons from New Orleans. Journal of Community Health, (Preprints), 1-10.
American Journal of Public Health: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/ (http://ajph.aphapublications.org/)
Michigan Community Healthy Worker Alliance: www.michwa.org (http://www.michwa.org)